Comparative Analysis of Acid-base Status Parameters in Newborn with Congenital Surgical Malformations During Perioperative Care Based on Types of Anesthesia
Introduction: Congenital malformations (CM) are most common in newborns and infants in the first year of life and require surgical correction in the first hours, days, months of life. Surgical interventions in severely ill babies with malformations can lead to catabolic stress, circulatory and respiratory disorders, metabolism shifts, water-electrolyte, protein, and acid-base status disorders.
This study aimed to compare acid-base status in newborns and infants with congenital surgical pathology under different types of combined anesthesia.
Materials and methods: This retrospective study included 150 newborns and infants with CM who required surgery. The patients were divided into three groups based on types of provided anesthesia: inhalation by Sevoran (sevoflurane) and regional anesthesia (group I); inhalation of Sevoran and intravenous anesthesia by Fentanyl (group II); and intravenous combination of Fentanyl and 20% Sodium Oxybutyrate (group III). The analysis included: acid-base status, peripheral oximetry, and the need for an oxygen mixture inhaled by the patient.
Results In group I, there was a significant reduction in partial tension of CO2 and increased pH from the pre-surgical status, at the time of induction of anesthesia, during the most painful, traumatic stage, and after surgery compared to group II and III. Peripheral O2 saturation was not critically reduced at all stages of observation except in babies of group I compared to group III at the stage of induction of anesthesia (97.79 ± 2.45 vs. 98.79 ± 1.63, p = 0.0194) and at the most painful period of surgery (96.29 ± 3.47 vs. 98.10 ± 2.47, p = 0.0368). In group I, newborns and infants required higher oxygen concentrations in the inhalation mixture. There was a significant difference in FiO2 between groups I and III during the most painful stage of surgery (0.47 ± 0.29 and 0.33 ± 0.2, p = 0.0071), and immediately after surgery (0.34 ± 0, 19 and 0.26 ± 0.13, p = 0.0246).
Conclusion: Among the newborns and infants with CM requiring surgical intervention and combined anesthesia, the most substantial acid-base status changes were observed in the group where anesthesia was provided by Sevoran (sevoflurane) and regional anesthesia (Group I).
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