Guideline for Authors

Instructions to Authors

Every journal has its own guideline, which depends of the nature of the journal, but some general recommendations include:

Accepted Manuscript File Formats

Please submit your paper in MS Word (.doc or .docx) file format according to the detailed instructions given below. The number of pages is at the discretion of authors. Average papers are 5-15 pages long. When preparing your paper for publication, pay attention to your research methods, key results, and language. To ensure rapid review and publication, please adhere to the following guidelines.


Submissions must be original work. No copyrighted material should be included without proper permission. Originality, creativity, and a cross-disciplinary approach or perspective are strongly encouraged. Significant duplication of papers and parallel submissions are not allowed, and in such cases, the publisher reserves the right to withdraw publishing rights from authors and co-authors. It is the authors' responsibility to check for possible copyright conflicts with any copyright holders and agree to our Publication Ethics and Publication Malpractice Statement.


Manuscripts must be written in English. If English is not the mother tongue of the author, we recommend that the paper be proofread to ensure its accuracy and improve the language quality. The publisher can provide a copy-editing service for an additional payment.

Manuscript Preparation

General: Manuscripts must be type-written, double-spaced with wide margins. The first page of the manuscript should include (a) Title of Manuscript; (b) Names, addresses, and email addresses of all co-authors; (c) Name, complete address, telephone number, fax number, and email address of the corresponding author; and (d) Abstract. An electronic copy of the paper will be submitted for consideration and publication. The editors reserve the right to adjust style to certain standards for uniformity.

Paper Length: The editors generally encourage brevity for all Research Papers. Short Communications must not exceed 4 printed pages and will be given priority for rapid publication.

Abstracts: Abstracts should not exceed 250 words and should not contain full reference.

Keywords: A minimum of 5 keywords must be included on a separate line below the main abstract and labeled "Keywords”. To optimize searching, avoid key words already used in the title. Avoid general and plural terms and multiple concepts (for example: avoid words like 'and', 'of'). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be used. These keywords are essential for indexing purposes.

Text: Follow this order when typing manuscripts: Title, Author, Affiliations, Abstract, Keywords, Text, Acknowledgments, Appendix, References, Figure Captions, and the Figures/Tables. Do not import the Figures or Tables into your main text file in MS Word format. Provide a separate PDF file of your manuscript text with correct placement of figures and tables. The corresponding author should be identified with an asterisk. All other footnote numerals should be identified with superscript Arabic numbers.

Units: SI unit should be used. If other units are necessary, include the conversion factor and add the non–standard unit in parentheses.

Symbols: Define in the text. Place an extensive list of symbols in an appendix.

Math: Avoid double suffix and punctuate carefully.

References: References must be listed in the numerical system (Vancouver style). All references should be numbered sequentially [in square brackets] (example: [1,2]. [1-10], there are no spaces between numbers in the text and listed in the same numerical order in the reference section. The reference numbers must be finalized, and the bibliography must be fully formatted before submission. DOI of the reference needs to be added, if available, at the end of the each citation. 

Journal titles are abbreviated in the style of NLM Title Abbreviations (for a list of accepted abbreviations see: PubMed Journals Database <>).     

*   Only first words of article title and words that normally begin with a capital letter are capitalized.

*   If the journal has continuous page numbering, you may omit month/issue number

For research papers having six or more authors, the first three authors should be listed, followed by a comma, and et al. (in italics).

Every reference should end with a period, even if it means

adding a period at the end of a doi.

See examples below of references listed in the correct Vancouver style:

1. Smith SD, Jones AD. Organ donation. N Engl J Med 2001; 657: 230-5.


2. Brown JG. Asphyxiation. Med J Aust 2003; 432: 120-4.

DOI format:


doi: 10.1111/j.1743-6109.2011.02248.x.

Typical Chapter Reference:

3. Blaxter PS, Farnsworth TP. Social health and class inequalities. In: Carter C, Peel JR, eds. Equalitiesand inequalities in health. 2nd ed. London: Academic Press; 1976. p. 165-78.

Book Reference:

4. Carlson BM. Human embryology and developmental biology. 3rd ed. St. Louis: Mosby; 2004.

Edited Book:

5. Brown AM, Stubbs DW, Eds. Medical physiology. New York: Wiley; 1983.

Conference Paper and Proceedings:

6. Anderson JC. Current status of chorion villus biopsy. In: Tudenhope D, Chenoweth J, eds. Proceedings of the 4th Congress of the Australian Perinatal Society; 1986: Brisbane, Queensland: Australian Perinatal Society; 1987: 190-6.

7. Harris AH, editor. Economics and health: Proceedings of the 19th Australian Conference of Health Economists; 1997: Sep 13-14; Sydney, Australia. Kensington, NSW: School of Health Services Management, University of New South Wales; 1998.

Journal Article on the Internet:

8. Aylin P, Bottle A, Jarman B, Elliott, P. Paediatric cardiac surgical mortality in England after Bristol: descriptive analysis of hospital episode statistics 1991-2002. BMJ [serial on the Internet]. 2004 Oct 9;[cited 2004 October 15]; 329:[about 10 screens]. Available from:

Book/Monograph on the Internet:

9. Donaldson MS, ED. Measuring the quality of health care [monograph on the Internet]. Washington: National Academy Press; 1999 [cited 2004 Oct 8]: Available from:

Web site/Homepage:

10. HeartCentreOnline [homepage on the Internet]. Boca Raton, FL: HeartCentreOnline, Inc.; c2000-2004 [updated 2004 May 23; the date of access 2004 Oct 15]: Available from:

Journal with Part/Supplement:

If a journal carries continuous pagination throughout the volume, then the issue number can be omitted.

Issue with Supplement:

11. Glauser TA. Integrating clinical trial data into clinical practice. Neurology 2002; 58(12 Suppl 7): S6-12.

Volume with Part:

12. Abend SM, Kulish N. The psychoanalytic method from an epistemological viewpoint. Int J Psychoanal 2002; 83(Pt 2): 491-5.

Issue with Part:

13. Ahrar K, Madoff DC, Gupta S, Wallace MJ, Price RE, Wright KC. Development of a large animal model for lung tumors. J Vasc Interv Radiol 2002; 13(9 Pt 1): 923-8.


14. Pagedas AC, inventor; Ancel Surgical R&D Inc., assignee. Flexible endoscopic grasping and cutting device and positioning tool assembly. United States patent US 20020103498. 2002 Aug.


15. Citations for articles/material published exclusively online or in open access (free-to-view), must contain the exact Web addresses (URLs) at the end of the reference(s), except those posted on an author’s Web site unless editorially essential, e.g. ‘Reference: Available from: URL’.

Some important points to remember:

*   All references must be complete and accurate.

*   Online citations should include the date of access.

*   Journal abbreviations should follow Index Medicus/MEDLINE.

*   Take special care of the punctuation conventions as described in the above-mentioned examples.

*   Avoid using superscript with the in-text citations and reference section.

*   Abstracts, unpublished data and personal communications (which can only be included if prior permission has been obtained) should not be given in the reference section, but they may be mentioned in the text.

*   The authors are encouraged to use a recent version of EndNote (version 5 and above) or Reference Manager (version 10) when formatting their reference list, as this allows references to be automatically extracted.

Digital Image Guide
: The Journal requires that digital artwork be prepared according to professional standards. Digital files must meet Journal requirements in order to be accepted for publication. Files that do not meet the guidelines will be rejected. Please refer to the instructions below when preparing images for publication.

To verify that you have fulfilled the requirements for electronic image preparation, use the following checklist. Each category is expanded below the checklist.

___ Black-and-white images are saved in grayscale mode (not black and white).

___ Photographic images are saved in RGB color mode (not CMYK or indexed color).

___ Files are submitted in native JPEG, TIFF, or PNG and are not embedded in another program such as Microsoft Word, PowerPoint, or Excel.

___ Charts or illustrations created in Microsoft Office (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) are submitted in native format and do not include embedded images.

___ Charts created in SPSS, SigmaPlot or ChemDraw are submitted as JPEG, TIFF, or PNG images. (All charts have to be exported to JPEG, TIFF, or PNG file and saved in separated files.)

___ All graphics are sized to 100% of their print dimensions so that no scaling is necessary (3.2" wide for 1-column figures, and 6.4" wide for 2-column figures).

___ Images have been scanned according to our scanning guidelines.

___ Files are named using our recommended naming conventions.

B. Color. When preparing digital images for publication, it is important to scan and save electronic files in the correct color space.

1. Photographic images. Images such as photographs, pulmonary angiograms, Chest x-ray, etc., should be scanned and saved in RGB color mode.

2. Line art. Black-and-white images, including line drawings, charts, graphs, and pulmonary function test, should be scanned and saved in grayscale mode (not black-and-white or color). (For charts created in SPSS, refer to Section C.2. For charts and graphs created in Microsoft Office, refer to Section C.3.)

3. Avoid ICC Profiles. Images should not contain any ICC profiles.

C. File Format. Submit only JPEG, TIFF, or PNG for electronic images. See instructions for submitting artwork created in Microsoft Office programs (Word, PowerPoint, Excel).

1. JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group). JPEG/JPG is recommended for photographic images. When preparing JPEG images, be sure to refer to our scanning guidelines for proper resolution. When submitting JPEG files for publication, be sure to use the following guidelines:

• Convert text to outlines or include/embed fonts. Use only Journal-approved fonts.

• Flatten any layers.

• Use line weights greater than 0.5 points.

• Use a resolution of 300 dpi/ppi.

• Save color images in RGB color mode.

• Use/Save as format baseline (“standard”), high to Maximum quality (Quality 8-12).

In most software programs, a JPEG is made by choosing File / Save as… or Export / JPEG or JPG or JPE. For more information, consult the Help menu of your software.

2. TIFF (Tagged Image File Format). TIFF format is also recommended for photographic images. When preparing TIFF images, be sure to refer to our scanning guidelines for proper resolution. When submitting TIFF files for publication, be sure to use the following guidelines:

•Use a resolution of 300 dpi.

•The Journal accepts TIFF images saved with LZW compression (not to use JPEG compression); choosing this option will result in smaller files.

In most software programs, a TIFF is made by choosing File / Save as… or Export / TIFF or TIF.

3PNG (Portable Network Graphics). PNG format is recommended for line art, charts, simple graphic images, and illustrations that are created using professional drawing programs such as Adobe Illustrator, SPSS, ChemDraw or SigmaPlot, etc. When submitting PNG files for publication, be sure to use the following guidelines:

• Convert text to outlines or include/embed fonts. Use only Journal-approved fonts.

• Flatten any layers.

• Use line weights greater than 0.5 points.

• Use format 24-bit PNG (24 bits per pixel).

• Save as none compression and none interlace.

In most drawing programs, a PNG file is made by choosing File / Save as …

or Export / PNG.

4. Microsoft Office (Word, Excel, PowerPoint). Charts and illustrations created in Microsoft Office programs are accepted. Do not submit Microsoft Office files that contain embedded images. When creating charts and illustrations—

• Work in black-and white, not color.

• Do not use patterns for fill color; use black, white, and shades of gray.

• Avoid 3-dimensional charts.

• Use only Journal-approved fonts.

• Use line weights greater than 0.5 points.

• Submit the grouped image so that Journal compositors can access the datasheet.


• Submitting graphics downloaded or saved from Web pages. The resolution will be too low, regardless of how the image looks on screen.

• Submitting GIF files. GIF files are never appropriate for publication.

• Scanning preprinted photographs (already published halftones). The printing process introduces distortion into the photograph that will transfer to the scan.

• Generating JPEGs in the Microsoft Office Document Scanning program. This proprietary program changes image formatting such that the image cannot be opened in our image evaluation program.

D. Resolution and Scanning

1. Images must be scanned at the proper resolution in order to ensure print quality. Use the following guidelines to select the correct scanning resolution. Images scanned at lower resolutions will be rejected.

• Photographic images without text or arrows: 300 dpi/ppi

• Photographic images with text or arrows: 600 dpi/ppi

• Black-and-white line art: 600 dpi/ppi

a. Scanning photographic images without text or arrows

• Scan in RGB mode.

• Scan at 300 dpi/ppi.

• Select a target width of 3.2" for 1-column figures, and 6.4" for 2-

column figures.

• Crop images tightly; do not scan the margins.

• Use the proper naming convention; save as a JPEG files, high to Maximum quality (Quality 8-12).

b. Scanning photographic images with text or arrows

• Scan in RGB mode.

• Scan at 600 dpi/ppi (even if text or labels will be added after the image is scanned).

• Select a target width of 3.2" for 1-column figures, or 6.4" for 2-column figures.

• Crop images tightly; do not scan the margins.

• If adding labels, use an approved font. If these are pixilated, you may be asked for an unlabeled version.

• Use the proper naming convention; save as a JPEG files, high to Maximum quality (Quality 8-12).

c. Scanning black-and-white line art

• Scan in grayscale mode.

• Scan at 600 dpi/ppi.

• Select a target width of 3.2" for 1-column figures, and 6.4" for 2-column figures.

• Images should be tightly cropped; do not scan the margins.

• If adding labels, use an approved font. If these are pixilated, you may be asked for an unlabeled version.

• Use the proper naming convention; save as a JPEG files, high to Maximum quality (Quality 8-12).

2. Scanning originals that are smaller than the target width

• Choose the correct color space for photographic images or line art.

• Determine the correct resolution. If an image has a width smaller than the target width, it is necessary to compensate with an increase in the scanning resolution. To do this, divide the actual width by the target width (either 3.2" or 6.4"). Multiply the answer by the target dpi and round up to the nearest hundred. This will determine the scanning dpi. Use the following example:

If an image is 2.4" wide and needs to be 300 dpi/ppi at 3.2" wide, then

3.2 ÷ 2.4 = 1.33

1.33 × 300 = 399 – Round up to 400.

Thus, if the 2.4" image is scanned at 400 dpi/ppi, the Journal can properly convert the image to 3.2" wide at 300 dpi.

• Use the proper naming convention and save.

E. Naming Files

1. Please use the following naming convention for electronic images:

Author last name + figure number. file format. For example: Clark1.jpg or Clark1A.png

2. Revising images. Any time you revise an image and resubmit it to the Journal, you need to add a version number to ensure that the image will be re-evaluated. For example: Clark1.png would be saved the next time as Clark1_v2.png

3. Note: Always allow the software program to add the file format extension. Files that do not contain an extension will be rejected. To change a file format extension, you must use a software program. Renaming a file extension does not properly convert a file. For example, simply renaming a TIFF file to a JPEG does not convert the file to a JPEG image. Opening a TIFF file in Photoshop (or comparable software program) and saving as a JPEG does properly convert the file. Note: You can safely change the Author last name + figure number (i.e., anything before the “dot file format” portion) by using the Rename command.

Tables: Tables should be numbered consecutively, and each table typed on a separate page. Footnotes to tables should be typed below the tables and should be referred to by superscript lowercase letters. Tables should not duplicate results presented elsewhere in the manuscript.


Proofs will be sent to the corresponding author. Corrections should be restricted to typesetting errors. Any queries should be answered in full. Please note that authors are urged to check their proofs carefully before return. The inclusion of late corrections cannot be guaranteed.

Processing Fee
Article submission and Open Access publication fee applies to all submitted manuscripts. Some discounts and/or waiver may be granted per request sent to an editor. The submission page states the updated publication charges, as soon as the author starts a new manuscript submission, he/she gets this information upfront.